V Subrahmanian, Tuesday, October 25, 2011 5:45 pm

kaThopaniShad Series Part – 14

Part 14

In the previous mantra (1.2.12) the Preceptor Yama had given a general indication of the nature of the Self and its location. He also stated that the knower of this Self would go beyond delusion and its products happiness and misery. Now in the sequel He is saying that the aspirant who has known the Self remains established in the Eternal Bliss that is the Self.

Mantra 13 –

???? ???????? ?????????? ???????

???????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ?

? ????? ??????? ?? ???????

?????? ???? ???????? ????? ?

???? ???????? Having heard this ?????????? and assimilating the teaching ??????? the mortal (jiva) ???????? upon separating ???????? that which is inseparable from dharma, righteousness ????? subtle ???? this ???? having obtained ? he ????? rejoices ??????? the most delightful ?? ??????? having attained/obtained ?????? wide open ???? the abode ???????? for Nachiketa ????? thus do I, Yama, consider.

The mortal who has heard this teaching and comprehended it well, who has separated that Atman, the very soul of dharma, from all physical objects and has realized the subtle essence, rejoices because he has obtained that which is the cause of rejoicing. The Abode of brahman, I believe, is open for Nachiketa. 

Yama says: ‘Having heard, listened, contemplated upon what I am going to teach about the Self, the aspirant will internalize the teaching and realize himself as non-different from the Self that is the subject matter of the teaching. How does this come about? The diligent aspirant will carefully separate the most subtle Self from the various grosser associations that had come about owing to ignorance of the nature of the Self. Once this Self is realized as oneself there sets in the great peace and bliss of having attained that which is itself peace and bliss. Considering you to be the most fit to enter and occupy it, the abode of Liberation lays open its doors to you, O Nachiketa.’ Yama gives expression to the confidence he has in the unfailing attainment of the Self by Nachiketa. Such is the promising demeanor of Nachiketa that the Guru, Yama, is extremely pleased with him. So is the case with any truly qualified aspirant and his preceptor.

Here is an excerpt from the Book ‘Yoga, Enlightenment and Perfection’ p.193, where an event immediately after the Enlightenment of Jagadguru Sri Abhinava Vidyatirtha SwaminaH is recorded:

The Author: When and how did ParamacharyaL (the Guru of the above mentioned SwaminaH) react to AcharyaL’s (the above mentioned SwaminaH) establishment in the Absolute?

AcharyaL: As I was returning from the hill, I saw My Guru standing outside Sacchidananda Vilas and looking in My direction. He beckoned to Me and went inside. When I went to His presence, He was alone. Even before I could prostrate before Him, He rushed to Me and embraced Me. Then holding Me by My shoulders, He said, ‘I am so very happy.’

??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ??????’ (munDaka Up. (2.2.8))

// The fetters of the heart are broken, all doubts are resolved and all works cease to bear fruit, when He is beheld who is both high and low. //

?? ???????????? ????, ???? ?????? ????????
(bRRihadAraNyaka Up. (4.4.7))

(Then, he who was subject to death, becomes deathless and attains identity with brahman while living in this very body.)

???????????????? ????????????????? ????? ? ????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?
(bhagavadgItA (3.17))

//But the man who rejoices only in the Self, who is satisfied with the Self, who is content in the Self alone, for Him verily there is nothing (more) to be done.//

My Guru cited these passages and said, ‘Such declarations of the shruti and smRRiti are applicable to You who abide as the Supreme brahman.’ Altering the words of GauDapAdAchArya a little, He told Me:

?????????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?

??????????????????????????????????? ????? ?

(The Reality has been seen (by You) in the context of the individual and in the external world. You have become identified with the Reality. You rejoice in the Reality. You are undeviating from the Reality.)

AcharyaL: On My Guru’s letting go of My shoulders, I prostrated before Him for long, placing my hands and head on His feet. Such was My Guru’s greatness that He highly appreciated anything positive in another. His instructions, blessings and grace were responsible for My sAdhana and whatever I achieved. Yet, My Guru did not take any credit. He was so thoroughly free from egoism. Where can one now find the likes of Him?

(End of the excerpt)

Manatra 14 –

??????? ??????? ??????? ????????

??????? ??????? ?????????? ?

??????? ?????? ? ??????? ?

??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ?

??????? different ??????? from virtue ??????? different ???????? from vice ??????? different ??????? from this ?????????? cause and effect. ??????? different ?????? from the past ? and ??????? ? the present as well ??? ??? that which ?????? you see ??? ?? teach me that.

Nachiketa said: That which you see as other than righteousness and unrighteousness, other than all this cause and effect, other than what has been and what is to be—tell me That. 

Now Nachiketa is getting down to his core mission: Commencing the enquiry into the Self with a view to obtain a clear knowledge thereof. He is making the question so clear that this is regarded as a very refined definition of the Self that is sought to be taught in the sequel. The wording is very specific: dharma/righteousness and adharma/unrighteousness are the concern of the world. In other words the people engaged in the world continuously perform dharma or adharma driven by their tendency and the circumstance. The result of this duality called dharma-adharma is that the doer experiences their fruit here in this world or there in the other world/s. This constant engagement with dharma-adharma is the guarantee that the person will continue in the various locations in the created world. For enjoying the fruit of virtuous deeds he travels to higher worlds, that of the manes and gods. On the other hand the result of engaging in adharma, unrighteousness, is the experiencing of pain in the appropriate world, of the animals, birds, plants and insects. Swami Vidyaranya draws a beautiful sketch of this situation:

??????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ? ??????? ?

?????? ???? ?? ????????????????????? ?? ?

???????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ? – (pa~nchadasI (1.30)).

Man engages in works to enjoy the fruits thereof. And he engages in the experiencing the fruits of his own actions only to engage in further work. Thus perpetuating the circular motion of action and enjoyment he remains in one body or the other, in one world or the other, just as a worm caught in an eddy in a river is pushed and tossed from one eddy to another eddy. Each eddy is a birth/body/world that the person, as jIva, experiences. Thus moving from one birth to another he never sees an end to this circular sojourn. The mantra says that the Self is outside the pair of dharma and adharma, transcending both, untouched by both.

Now, the next pair of terms in the mantra is: cause and effect. These two constitute the entire creation in its unmanifest causal form and the manifest form as effect. The created world depends upon the karma, action, of the individuals, jIva-s . The totality of the result of the individuals’ karma remains in a seed form during the state of dissolution, praLaya, so as to manifest in a fresh form enabling the individuals to experience the fruit of the karma they have performed earlier. The seed state is called the ‘unmanifest’ state, not available for our perception but only inferable from the effect called the manifest state. Since this pair of cause and effect too belongs to creation, the Self that is sought to be known is differentiated from this pair.

The third pair in the mantra is: the past and the future. Contextually the present is also to be taken. The past consists of all that belongs to the bygone era. That which we experience at present will eventually skip into the past. The future is yet to arrive but when it arrives it comes to be termed ‘the present’, and following the natural course, will enter the category of ‘past’. Thus we see that the past, the present, and the future have no permanent existence; it is extremely fluid. The Self is not such a triad, and not limited by the past, the present and the future.

In a nutshell Nachiketa is asking to be taught that principle which transcends dharma-adharma, cause-effect and past-future. This transcendental entity alone is to be sought after by the one desiring immortality. While most people will be satisfied with what is offered by the dharma-adharma, cause-effect and past-future pairs, it is given to only an extremely rare individual to understand the limitations of the three pairs and appreciate the immense worth of the Self that transcends the three pairs. He is ready to pay the highest price in the form of making the highest sacrifice, no matter what that is. For such is the nature of the Self that there is an unbridgeable chasm between the finite and the infinite. By now it is clear what constitutes the finite: the three pairs. And what constitutes the infinite: the Self, also known by the terms Atma, brahman, etc.

Part 1, Part 13, Part 15

Warning: Use of undefined constant php - assumed 'php' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /homepages/26/d757526286/htdocs/ADVAITAACADEMY/wp-content/themes/advaita/single.php on line 102

Recent articles