V Subrahmanian, Monday, December 19, 2016 12:35 pm

S?tasamhit? B?had?ra?yaka Upani?at – Part 8

Part 8

The method of attaining the realization of Brahman through knowledge has been taught. What happens to the knower of Brahman?

Verse 50

???? ?????? ???? ????????????

     ????? ???? ???? ???????? ? ?

???? ?????? ???? ????????????

     ????? ???? ???? ???????? ? ? ???

? not ??? this ?????? sin ???? subdues ???????????? knower ????? all ???? sin ???? transcends ????????  world ? and ? not ??? this ?????? sin ???? scorch ???????????? knower ????? all ???? sin ???? scorches ???????? world ? and

The result of action performed by the Knower in his pre-realization state will not ever confront him and subdue him. On the other hand, merit (pu?ya) and demerit (p?pa) are transcended by the Knower by virtue of his realization of Brahman as ‘I am Brahman that is never a doer of any act in all periods of time, past, present and future.’ Not just the result of action, the Knower rises above the entire manifested world of name-form.  His self-realization is of the form: ‘All this observed world is only an illusory appearance of my true nature, Brahman, and therefore has no existence apart from its cause.’ Thus says the ?ruti:   ???? ?????? ? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ???? [‘Him who knows this, these two thoughts do not overcome: ’For this I did an evil deed and for this I did a good deed.’ On the other hand he overcomes both. Things done or not done do not afflict him.’]   (B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad 4.4.22).  In this passage both aspects have been settled: (1) the Knower transcending the effects of what is performed and what is not performed, that is, pu?ya, merit, and p?pa, demerit and (2)  the Knower not being affected by merit and demerit. Therefore, here too, in this passage, the term ‘p?pa’ is to be taken as indicating pu?ya as well. Both pu?ya and p?pa do not affect the Knower since the Knowledge that he has initiated burns both merit and demerit. The Knower not being affected by this pair is stated in the Taittiriya Upani?ad 2.9.1 as well:  ??? ? ??? ? ???? ? ????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ??????????? [Him this does not distress: Why did I not do what is good? Why did I do what is evil?] Also in the Bhagavadg?t? 4.37 the Lord has stated that the liberating knowledge burns all sins (pu?ya and p?pa):

???????? ?????????????????????????????????? ? 
??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ? 4.37 ?   

 O Arjuna, as a blazing fire reduces pieces of wood to ashes, similarly the fire of Knowledge reduces all actions to ashes.

Verse 51

????? ?????? ??????????? ????????

     ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?

????? ????? ??????????? ??????

     ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???

????? thus ?????? Brahman ??????????? one’s very self ???????? having known ????????????? full of faith ????? body ??? this ???????? one’s own ????? wealth ????? completely ??????????? inert ?????? entirely ??????? let offer ????? to him ????????????? the foremost Preceptor ??????? man

Upon securing the Supreme Knowledge that results in the aspirant realizing his own true state as the Ever Great Brahman, the summum bonum of human life, verily liberation, the mind naturally thinks of expressing gratitude to the Preceptor who has vouchsafed this Knowledge. What is to be offered to the Guru that would be befitting the benefit received?

The B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad 4.4.23 replies through the words of King Janaka who is expressing his gratitude to his preceptor Sage Yajñavalkya: ????? ????? ????????????? ??? ???? ?? ??????????  [‘Venerable Sir, I give you the empire of Videha and myself, too, with it, to wait upon you.] The Upani?ad teaches that one has to give oneself, the possessor, along with the possessions, to the Guru. The idea is that the Knowledge conferred by the Preceptor erases all sense of ‘I’ (ego) and ‘mine’. The possession is not confined to what the individual might physically claim to be his own at a particular juncture but the entire cosmos that is the knowable, observable, by the individual. This part is called the ‘k?etram’, the field, the inert prak?ti as opposed to the Consciousness that illumines even the possessor, puru?a, the knower, pram?t?, of the k?etram, the prameyam. All the instruments of knowledge that constitute the knowing process, too, belong to the inert matter. The knower, individual, who is the one identifying himself as the possessor of the instruments of knowledge like the sense and motor organs, the mind, the gross body, etc. is also a pseudo entity, to be known as unreal.

Thus, the greatest ‘offering’ the Guru would expect of the aspirant-disciple is this complete negation of the not-self.  Such a negation will leave the negator-individual as the all-pervading Brahman, the substratum on which the entire not-self is superimposed.

Verse 52  

????????????????????? ?????-

     ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?

?? ????????????? ????? ?

     ????? ? ????????????????? ????? ? ???

?? he ? again ???????? pierces ??????? with truth ????? in the ears ?????? painless ??????? doing ????? immortality ???????????? giving ?? him ???????? know ????? father ????? mother ? and ????? to him ? do not ?????????? harm ????? done ???? his ????? knowing

The Guru who has bestowed that immensely exalting knowledge that results in the aspirant’s liberation from the greatest misery that is bondage, is to be regarded as one’s parents and no injury to him is ever to be even thought of by the disciple. Y?ska’s words are being paraphrased: The Preceptor communicates to the disciple the Absolute Transcendental Truth by piercing the ears of the latter, as it were. In the worldly piercing of the ears (a scriptural sacrament followed by those of the san?tana dharma where the child’s earlobes are pierced so as to be adorned with a pair of golden studs) there is some pain experienced by the child. In this delivery of the Truth into the ears of the disciple, however, there is absolutely no pain involved. Not only there is no pain but there is a bonus too: the am?tam  (literally nectar that keeps the Gods in the heaven free of all bodily afflictions) that renders one immortal, verily the Truth, is being given to the disciple.

Even though the Self is one’s own always, yet owing to the enveloping and the resulting delusion caused by ajñ?nam, ignorance, it is as though it is lost to oneself. When the Guru gives the teaching of the Self, it is a discovery on the part of the disciple, akin to the necklace that has ever remained on the person’s neck is believed to be lost and when pointed out by another of its presence on the person, it is as though attained anew. He who has bestowed this ‘new birth’ that is the cessation of all physical births, is to be honored as verily one’s parents. While the biological parents give one a bodily birth and enable him to enjoy all worldly pleasures, the spiritual Guru reveals the state of liberation to the disciple. One has to be ever grateful to the Guru keeping in mind the supreme benefit received and never do anything bodily, verbally and mentally that would cause even the slightest harm to him.

Verse 53

????????????? ?? ??????????

     ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?

????????????? ?? ????? ???

     ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???

??????????? one’s Preceptor’s ?? alone ?? indeed ?????????? singing of the Name ????? let be ???????? of the Infinite ?????? ?iva’s ???????? contemplation ??????????? one’s Preceptor’s ?? alone ??  indeed ????? worship ??? and  ????? let be ???????? of the Infinite ?????? ?iva’s ?????? worship

The primary activity the Knower engages in is the glorifying the Name of his Preceptor and worshiping Him by body, mind and word. It is the realization that the Preceptor is none other than Brahman, which is realized that one is always. This worship is done with utmost respect and devotion to that power which the Preceptor is that has bestowed the Supreme Knowledge.   

Verse 54

????????????? ?? ??????????

     ????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?

????????????? ?? ????? ???

     ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??

??????????? of one’s Preceptor ?? alone ?? indeed ?????????? singing of the Name ????????????? of the words such as ‘?iva’ ?? indeed ??????? glorifying ????? amounts to ??????????? of one’s Preceptor ?? alone ?? indeed ????? harming ??? so too ????? amounts to ???????? of the Infinite ?????? ?iva’s ?????? harming

It was pointed out in the foregoing that the Knower ought not to harbor any ill will towards his Preceptor. Any such harm that one even contemplates will amount to harming the very Lord ?iva. The idea conveyed is that the Guru is none other than God, ?iva.  

Verse 55


     ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?

?????????? ????????????????

     ????????????? ????????????????? ? ???

??????? therefore ???????? Knower ?????? all ???? this ????? leaving aside ????????????? full of faith ???????? the Sadguru ??????????? established in Truth ?????????? repository of Knowledge ???????????????? following the Vedic and Ved?ntic teaching ??????? let him go  ?????? regularly ????????????????? endowed with Truth (Satyam), dharma, etc.;

The Jñ?nin conducts himself in the utmost respectable way with regard to the Preceptor. The Preceptor is immensely worthy of the highest respect since he is the bestower of the Eternal Truth, never swerves from Truth, a repository of all emancipating knowledge and sincerely adhering to the requirements of the Veda and the Ved?nta. The Knower-disciple is to be endowed with truth, dharma, etc. Only then it is possible for him to be  worthy of the Preceptor’s grace.   

Verse 56

???????? ???? ??? ????????????? ???????????

     ???????? ???? ???? ? ?? ???????????????????????? ?? ?

?????????? ???? ??? ? ?? ??? ???????? ???????????

     ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ????? ? ???

???????? what is to be said ???? all that ??? by me ????????????? endowed with great grace ??????????? praised ???????? what is to be done ???? all that ????? O Gods! ? not ?? indeed ????? of the sage ?????????????????? established in the realization of Brahman ?? however ?????????? what is to be remembered ???? all that ??? thus ? not ?? indeed ??? always ?????? Brahman ?? alone ??????????? Existence-Consciousness-Bliss ????????? complete ???????? ever-shining ????? One Impartite Consciousness ?????? always ????? by itself  ????? shines

Lord Brahm?, the Preceptor, concludes the discourse by paying rich tributes to the Brahma vidy?, the Knowledge, the Sage who has realized this transcendental Supreme Truth and the very Brahman that is the  Supremely adorable One. What is to be taught about Brahman, the Goal, and the means to attain It, has been articulated by Me endowed with the supreme grace It has been praised. Nothing remains that is to be done by the Realized Sage. Nor is there anything that the Sage should recollect or remember since Brahman that he has identified himself with, is the All, the Full, is One Impartite Consciousness and forever shining.

Here ends the discourse on the essence of the B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad as taught in the S?ta smahit?.

Om Tat Sat

This series ends here 

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