V Subrahmanian, Thursday, December 18, 2014 11:36 am

The Pra?nopani?at – Part 2

Part 2

Mantra 1.6

???????? ??????????????? ???? ???????? ??? ????????????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ????????, ????????? ???, ?????????????????????? ????????? ? ? ?

?? now ??????? the sun ????? rising ??? that ??????? eastern ???? quarter ???????? enters  ??? by that  ?????????? the eastern ???????? beings ??????? in its rays ????????? enfolds ??? that ???????? southern ??? that ???????? western ??? that ?????? northern ??? that ??? below ??? that ??????? above ??? that ??????? intermediate ???? quarters ??? that  ????? everything ????????? illumines ??? by that ??????? all ???????? beings ??????? in its rays ????????? enfolds

Now the sun, when it rises, enters the eastern quarter and thereby enfolds the living beings of the east in its rays. And when it illuminates the southern, the western, the northern, the lower, the upper and the intermediate quarters—when it illumines everything—it thus enfolds all living beings in its rays.  

Even though formless, pr??a is the ‘eater’ and all else is the ‘eaten.’ How is this made possible? When the Sun rises and becomes visible to the beings, it pervades the entire eastern quarter by its own light. By this it absorbs within its rays which are its own pervasive light, all the creatures that live in the eastern quarter, by its very pervasion, making them one with itself.  In other words, the Sun, with its luminosity, bathes the entire eastern quarter, thereby making itself the ‘eater’ and the beings in the eastern quarter, the ‘eaten.’  In the same manner as the Sun illumines the south, the north, the western and the intermediate quarters, it makes all the beings there in all those quarters, one with itself by the very means of its pervading those quarters with its luminosity. 

Mantra 1.7

? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????????????? ? ????????????????? ? ? ?  

?: He ??? this ????????? the soul of all ????????? soul of all forms ?????? pr??a ?????? fire ????? rises  ??? that ???? this ??? by the mantra ?????????? stated

That sun rises every day—the sun, which is the soul of all creatures, the soul of all forms, which is life and fire. This has been described by the following ?k. 

This pr??a? who is the ‘eater’ of everything, the soul of all, and the self of the entire world too, who is the pr??a and fire as well, he alone is the ‘eater’ who rises, manifests himself to the world, by making the entire world his own.  This very pr??a is being stated by the ?k, mantra, too.   

Mantra 1.8

????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?
??????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ? ?

????????? all-formed ????? rayed  ???????? knowledgeable  ??????  supreme abode of all ??????? light ??? one only  ??????? warmer ??????????? thousand-rayed ???? as hundreds ???????? exists ?????? life ????????? of all beings ????? rises ?? this ?????? sun   

He who is in all forms, full of rays, all-knowing, non-dual, the support of all life, the eye of all beings, the giver of heat. There rises the sun, the thousand-rayed, existing in a hundred forms, the life of all creatures. 

This Sun who is of all forms since he is all-pervading, endowed with rays, omniscient, secondless, the support of all life on earth, the organ/deity eye of all beings, the one who warms the creation, is realized as oneself by the Knowers of Brahman. Who is the one that is known thus? He is the thousand-rayed one, that is, his rays are innumerable.  He exists in several forms of all beings, the very life of all beings, who rises. That is this S?rya, the Sun, that is being discussed in these mantras.

Mantra 1.9

???????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ? ????? ? ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ? ? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?? ? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ? ?

???????? year ?? verily ????????? is praj?pati ???? his ???? two paths ??????? southern ? and ?????? northern ? too ??? that ?? those ? verily ?? indeed ??? that ??????????? pious actions ????? performed ??? thus ?????? perform  ?? they ??????????? the lunar ?? certainly ????? world ????????? win ?? they ?? certainly ???? again ????????? return ??????? therefore ??? these ???? ??is  ?????????? desirous of offspring ??????? southern  ????????????? attain ??? this  ? verily  ?? indeed ???? food ?? that ???????? the path of manes.

The year, verily, is Praj?pati and there are two paths thereof: the Southern and the Northern. Those who perform sacrifices and engage in pious actions, as duties to be done, win only the World of the Moon; verily they return hither again. Therefore the ??is who desire offspring travel by the Southern Path. This Path of the manes is rayi, food. 

How does this single pair that is the moon which is formed and constitutes the food, and the pr??a, the sun, the consumer, by a single union, bring about the entire progeny?  This is being stated herein.   This element of time, k?la, that is the year (samvatsara), is the praj?pati since the year is brought about by him. The year, samvatsara, is produced by the moon, Chandra and sun, ?ditya and is a collection of lunar days, tithi, the solar day and solar night. [A ‘tithi’ is enumerated as first, second, third, etc. in a lunar fortnight.]  Since the year is non-different from the sun and the moon, it is called the union of the food (moon) and the eater (sun, pr??a).  How is this so? The reply is: The two paths of a year, samvatsara, the praj?pati, are the two popular ones namely dak?i?a-ayana and uttara-aya?a, the southern and northern half-years (six-month periods). The savit?, the sun god, passes through these two halves of the year, bestowing the respective fruits to the performers of mere scriptural actions (dak?i??yana) and those that engage in scriptural actions combined with meditations (uttar?ya?a).  The mere actions consist of sacrifices and actions oriented to public good such as setting up water reservoirs, parks, planting trees, building temples and so on.  Since these are mere actions and not acquiring the knowledge of the uncreated Brahman, the fruit thereof will also lie only in the perishable realm. This realm is stated as the world of the moon, constituted by food known as ‘rayi’ (food) which is only a portion of the Lord of creatures, Praj?pati, who comprises a pair.  The reason for this is that the moon is an effect, a product, k?ta, of action. When the stock of their fruit-yielding karma ends, they return to this or even lowly states as stated by the Mu??akopani?at 1.2.10.  Those ??is, the householders, desirous of offspring engage in that action that will beget them perishable fruits, thereby produce the kingdom of Chandra, the moon.  This is the dak?i??yanam, the southern path, which they attain to, having earned it by their actions, to end up in such a loka (abode of the moon).  This indeed is the food, annam, rayi, that they have created by their actions.  This path is called the ‘pit?y?na?’, the path of manes, the world of the moon as suggested by the term ‘path of the manes.’

Mantra 1.10

????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????????????????????????? ? ?????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ? ?? ?

?? on the other hand ??????? by the northern path ???? by austerity ???????????? chastity ???????? faith ??????? knwoledge ???????? self ???????? seeking ???????? the Sun ????????? attain ???? this ?? indeed ?????????? of the lives ?????? support ???? this ?????? immortal ????? fearless ???? this ??????? the supreme ???????? from this ? do not ???? again ???????? return ??? thus ?? this ?????? blocked ??? that ??? this ?????? verse

But those who seek the Self through austerity, chastity, faith and knowledge travel by the Northern Path and win the Sun. The Sun, verily, is the support of all lives. He is immortal and fearless; He is the final goal. Thence they do not return. This path is blocked for the ignorant. Concerning it there is the following verse (in the next mantra).

By the northern path they attain the sun, ?ditya, (the counterpart of Praj?pati), the pr??a, the Eater.  How? By austerity characterized by sense control, especially, chastity.  Faith accompanied by knowledge  pertaining to the nature of Praj?pati, they attain to the self, the ?ditya, the pr??a, the support of the entire world.  This is accomplished by seeking it and knowing it as ‘I am that’.  This is indeed the support of all pr??as, it is the immortal, imperishable, and therefore alone fearless since the fear of waxing and waning pertaining to the moon is not there in this state.  This abode is the supreme, of the knowledgeable, that is, the performers of actions and meditations.  From this abode they do not return (to sams?ra, transmigratory life), unlike those who have performed mere scripture-ordained actions without engaging in meditations, who will, however, return to sams?ra from the abode they reach.  Therefore these ignorant ones are barred from the supreme abode of the Sun, ?ditya. These do not attain the ‘year’ (samvatsara) that is ?ditya, which is pr??a.  This samvatsara which is the k?la, time, is the limit, obstruction, to the ignorant.  With this as the purport there is a verse, mantra, in the sequel. 

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