V Subrahmanian, Saturday, January 10, 2015 11:05 am

The Pra?nopani?at – Part 3

Part 3

Mantra 1.11


???????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ?

????? ???? ? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ? ?? ?

???????? five-footed ????? father ???????????? twelve-formed ???? above sky ???? call ??? others ????? living in that region ????????? giving rain ?? then ??? these ????? others ? ??? knowers ???????? omniscient ????????? sun ??? six-spoked ???? say ???????? fixed ??? thus

Some call Him the father with five feet and with twelve forms, the giver of rain and the dweller in the region above the sky. Others, again, say that the world is fixed in the omniscient Sun, endowed with seven wheels and six spokes. 

The Praj?pati, called Pr??a, is spoken of by those adepts in reckoning time as endowed with five feet which are nothing but the five seasons.  Just as the feet are required to move from place to place, so too these seasons are there signifying the movement, cyclically, of the time principle which is also Pr??a alone.  These are the ‘feet’ of ?ditya, sun, who is the embodiment of the samvatsara, year.  While there are six seasons, the total number five is arrived at by counting the hemanta and ?i?ira seasons as one.  He is called a father since all creation proceeds from him.  The twelve months are as though his forms.  These are his parts.  He stays in the upper half region of the heaven, which is the third heaven.  He is called ‘Pur???’, the one who is full of water (since the sun causes cloud which yields water).  On the other hand, others who are diligent in the computation of time call him the Omniscient one.  In him, who moves incessantly with seven wheels, which are seven horses, and is the self of Time, the six seasons are enshrined, this entire world is located just as the spokes are fixed in the navel of a chariot. 

Whether five-footed and twelve-limbed or seven-wheeled and six-spoked, in all respects this self-of-Time, the Praj?pati, who is also signified by the sun and moon, is the cause of the world.  

That very Praj?pati in whom this whole universe is resting, who is known as the ‘samvatsara’ (Year), completely pervades his own limbs which are the twelve months:

Mantra 1.1.12


???? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????????????? ???? ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?? ?

 ???? ?? verily the month is ????????? Praj?pati  ?????????? dark-half ?? verily ???? food, rayi?, ?????? bright-half  ?????? eater, pr??a ??????? therefore ??? these ???? ??is  ?????? during bright-half ????? sacrfices ????????? perform ???? others ????????? in the other (dark-half).

The month, verily, is Praj?pati. Its dark half, verily, is food, rayi; its bright half, the eater, pr??a. Therefore some ??is perform sacrifice in the bright half, some in the other half.   

That pr??a who is already stated to be a pair and who is Praj?pati is verily the ‘m?sa?’, month.  He, who is composed of the months, has the dark-half, the food, rayi, whch is Chandra (the moon), for his one half.  The other half is the bright-half, called pr??a, S?rya (the sun), the eater, fire. For the reason that Pr??a, the bright half, is looked upon as ‘everything’, therefore those ??is that are adepts in recognizing the Pr??a, perform the sacrifices in the period of dark-half too, since they do not view the dark-half as apart from the Pr??a.  The others, on the other hand, not visioning the Pr??a, see only the dark-half that is marked by obstructing the vision.   They perform the sacrifice only in the ‘other’, the dark-half, even though they may be doing so in the bright-half.  This is because, they are endowed with ignorance pertaining to Pr??a and therefore their bright-half is deemed to be the dark-half alone.  The mantra is implicitly censuring their ignorance. 

Mantra 1.1.13

????????? ?? ??????????????????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ? ?? ?

????????? day and night ?? indeed is ????????? Praj?pati ???? his ??? day ?? alone is ?????? pr??a ??????? his night ?? alone ???? food ?????? pr??a ?? indeed  ??? these ????????????? dissipate ?? those ???? during day ????? with women ??????????? copulate ???????????? continence ?? alone is ??? that ??? which ?????? during night ????? with women ??????????? copulate.

Day and night, verily, are Praj?pati. Of these, day is the eater, pr??a and night, the food, rayi. Those who join in sexual enjoyment by day verily dissipate life; but to join in sexual enjoyment by night is, verily, chastity.  

That very Praj?pati who is verily the months, is recognized in the day and night that are his limbs.  Therefore the day-night pair is Praj?pati. His day alone is pr??a, the eater, fire and night indeed is rayi, food, the eaten, as stated before. They eject, exhaust, waste away by alienating from themselves Pr??a, the day.  Who are these censurable ones? Those are the ignorant ones who unite in copulation with women during day.  Incidentally the Veda is prohibiting such an act.  On the other hand the engaging in conjugal union during the night, in the appropriate period of the woman, is laudable and hence, incidentally, is a Vedic injunction.  The purport of this mantra is that Praj?pati who is verily the day-night pair is well established as food in the form of rice and barley. 

Mantra 1.1.14

????? ?? ????????????? ? ?? ?????????????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ? ?? ?

 
????? ?? food verily is ????????? Praj?pati ???from him ? ?? certainly indeed ??? that ???? semen emanates ??????? from that ???? these ?????? creatures ????????? are born ??? thus.

 
Food, verily, is Praj?pati. From that comes semen; from semen are all these creatures born.

 
Food indeed is Praj?pati. How is this possible? From food evolves semen the seed of humans which upon being placed in the womb of the female brings forth offspring of the species of humans, etc. 

 
The disciple Kabandh? K?ty?yana, at the commencement of the dialogue, had posed the question: From where do the creatures emerge? This was replied in the rest of the mantras by elucidating the process consisting of the coupling of Chandra and ?ditya as the beginning and the specifying of the day and night as the end, through the union of blood and semen. This is how beings are born from Praj?pati.

 
Mantra 1.1.15

 
????? ? ?? ???????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ? ?? ?

 
??? thus ?? those ? ?? well known indeed  ??? this ????????????? vow of Praj?pati  ?????? undertake ?? they ???????  pair ??????????? beget  ?????? theirs ?? alone ?? is this ?????????? brahmaloka ????? whose  ??? vow ??????????? of continence ???? in whom ????? truth ???????????? is established firmly.

    
Those, therefore, who practise this rule of Prajapati beget a pair. But Brahmaloka belongs to those who observe austerity and chastity and in whom truth is firmly established.    

The method of creation of beings having been thus explained in the foregoing, the actual way of creation of human species is now stated. Those householders who follow the path of the scripture engage in copulation only during the specified period, signifying the ‘vow pertaining to Praj?pati’ (the word ‘praj?pati’ means ‘the Lord of creatures/progeny’). For those householders the fruit of this vow is perceived directly, d???a-phalam, and that is that they beget the pair, of both male and female progeny.  And what is the unseen, ad???a, fruit? For those householders who engage in the scripture-ordained society-oriented works such as digging wells, ponds, planting trees, laying out parks, giving away gifts, etc. they alone attain the ‘brahmaloka’ specified by the world of moon, Chandra.  This is the world of the manes. These householders have dutifully practiced the vow of ‘sn?taka’, the one who has graduated from the gurukulam, and celibacy signified by not copulating with wife during periods that are prohibited.  Also, these householders carefully avoid speaking untruth.  The destination of the world of manes is there only for such pious householders and not for others. 

Now, in contrast with the above, who are those that will attain the other world of ?ditya, sun, which is attained by the bright, uttar?ya?a’ path, which is pure and not subject to waxing and waning like the lunar world?

Mantra 1.1.16

??????? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????? ? ???? ???? ? ?? ?

?????? theirs ??? this ????? pure ?????????? solar brahmaloka ? not ???? in whom  ??????? crookedness ????? falsehood ? is not there ???? ? and deception ??? thus.

The stainless World of Brahma belongs to those in whom there is no crookedness, no falsehood and no deception. 

For the householders, the very nature of their living does not afford them the way to be completely free of crookedness.  There are many contradicting social situations that arise in their daily life. They cannot stay clear of these wrongs in the course of, for instance, their engaging in play or merriment. They will be compelled to resort to falsehood, fraud and deceit. ‘Deceit’ is that condition where one poses to be something in the public while actually acting to the contrary.  These defects are not there in the case of brahmac?rins (celibates), v?naprasthas (forest-dwellers) and sanny?sins (renunciates).  Only those who are free of the above stated defects, engaging in scripture-ordained duties combined with meditation, attain the world of ?ditya, which is distinct from that of Chandra (which is attained by those who engage in mere scriptural actions with the exclusion of meditation).  The idea is that the fruit of the extra element of meditation, which is indeed more demanding, has to be higher relatively.

[Here ends the first section, verily the first Question (and answer) of the Pra?nopani?at.]

Part 1, Part 2, Part 4


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