V Subrahmanian, Monday, April 13, 2015 2:45 pm

The Pra?nopani?at – Part 6

Part 6

The ?c?rya, sage Pippal?da, gives an example to show that from ?tman alone pr??a emerges:

Mantra 3.2

????? ??  ?????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ? ? ?

?????? from ?tman ?? this ?????? pr??a ????? emerges ??? just as ??? this ?????? in man ?????? shadow ???????? in this ???? this ???? cast ???????? by mind’s resolve ????? comes ??????? in this ????? body

This pr??a is born of ?tman. As a shadow is cast by a person, so this pr??a is, by ?tman. Through the activity of the mind it comes into this body. 

This pr??a, explained in the foregoing, is born of the ?tman the Supreme Puru?a known as the Ak?ara, Imperishable, which is the Satya, ever-existent, Truth. How does this happen? Here is an analogy. Just as in the world when the cause in the form of a man endowed with head, hands, etc. is present, a shadow, the effect, is born. Actually the shadow is not born; it just appears as a necessary effect when the required conditions are present.  Similarly in Brahman, that is in the presence of Brahman, this entity known as ‘pr??a’ which is akin to the shadow, which is in any case false as it is not the man, is manifest in the real man. This happens just as a shadow appears ‘in’ the body, owing to the resolve effected by the mind, in the form of desire, etc.  In the sequel it will be stated: ‘pu?yena pu?yam’ [‘by virtuous deeds to virtuous worlds’] (Pra.up.3.7) etc. This idea itself is seen reflected in another passage: ‘sakta? saha karma??’ [‘Because of attachment, the transmigrating self, together with its work…’ (B?.up. 4.4.6). Pr??a, by this means, comes into this body.

Mantra 3.4

??? ???????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????? ????? ????????????????????????? ????????? ? ? ?

??? just as a ???????? the emperor alone ????????? officials ???????????? enjoins ????? these ???????? villages ????? these ???????? villages ??????????? preside/officiate ??? thus ????  ?? so too ?? this ?????? pr??a ?????? others ???????? sense organs ?????????? separately ?? alone ????????? employs

As an emperor commands his officials, saying “Rule these villages or those,” so this pr??a employs the other pr??as (the organs), each in its separate place. 

In the world, a King allocates and posts officials to govern particular villages to each of them.  He does that because he finds that employing officials on his behalf to carry out the local administration in those far off localities would be a better way of governing the whole kingdom, by delegating authority and have them report to him periodically. Similarly the pr??a delegates each function in the body to a certain sense/motor organ to carry out the overall functioning of the body. It has been expounded in the earlier questions that the sense and motor organs function on the power derived from pr??a and that if the pr??a leaves the body these cannot stay there any longer.

Mantra 3.5 

?????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ? ?? ??????????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?

????????? excretory and genital ????? ap?na ?????????????? eyes and ears ?????????????? by mouth and nose ?????? pr??a ????? himself ??????????? installs ????? middle ?? however ????? sam?na ?? he ?? indeed ???? this ????? offered ????? food ??? equally ???? distributes ??????? hence ???? these ???? seven ??????? flames ?????? arise

Pr??a engages ap?na in the organs of excretion and generation; he himself moves through the mouth and nose and dwells in the eye and ear. In the middle is sam?na; it distributes equally what has been offered as food in the fire in the stomach. From this pr??a fire arise the seven flames. 

Here is how the allocation of portfolios takes place. Pr??a, in the form of ap?na, discharges feces and urine from the outlets excretory (anus) and genital organs. And the eyes and ears are the abodes of pr??a himself, who is like the King, without delegating to others this function, by motioning through the mouth and nose. By breathing function, the pr??a himself governs the eye and ear organs. In the mid region, between the regions of the pr??a (upper) and ap?na (lower) is situated the sam?na that carries the eaten and drunk food equally, sama, distributing to various parts. Since it is sam?na that distributes the food offered as oblation to the self-fire in the stomach, from the eaten and drunk food-fire of the stomach, reaching the heart region, it issues forth as seven flames. The purport of this mantra is that pr??a that is of the head region, enables the functions such as seeing and hearing, in their respective fields of forms etc.

Mantra 3.6

???? ????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ? ?

???? in the heart ?? indeed ?? this ????? self ???? here ???? this ????? one hundred ??????? nerves/arteries ????? their ??? ???? ????????? of each hundred ??????????? ??????????? seventy two each ????????????????????? thousand each ?????? branch off ??? in these ?????? vy?na ???? moves about

The ?tman dwells in the heart, where there are one hundred and one arteries (n??i-s); for each of these there are one hundred branches and for each of these branches, again, there are seventy two thousand subsidiary vessels. Vy?na moves in these.

The j?v?tm?n is present in the heart.  ‘Heart’ is the fleshy formation in the shape of a lotus.  In this location is the j?v?tman, the subtle-body, li?g?tm?, who is ever associated with the Param?tman. It is the subtle body that transmigrates whenever the gross body dies. While the subtle body is always present till final emancipation, the gross body comes and goes. In this heart there are a hundred and one main n??i-s. Each of these main n??i-s is further divided into one hundred branches. Further, each of these divided branch is subdivided into seventy two thousand sub-branches. Thus the sub-branches are 727,200,000 and the total number of all n??i-s put together is 727,210,201 (ref: footnote on p.443 of Swami Gambhirananda’s translation). Vy?na, a form of pr??a, moves about in these n??i-s. Vy?na gets its name because it is all-pervading. Just as the rays issuing forth from the sun pervade everywhere, so too the vy?na, through the n??i-s issuing forth from the heart region, pervade the whole body. Vy?na functions particularly in the joints, shoulders, and vital parts, and the region between the pr??a (upper) and ap?na (lower), contributing to the functions requiring strength.

Mantra 3.7

??????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ? ?

?? And ???? through one of them ??????? upward ????? ud?na ??????? by virtuous acts ?????? virtue ???? world ???? leads ????? by sinful deeds ????? sinful world ????????? by both ?? alone ??????????? world of humans.   

And then ud?na, ascending upward through one of them, conducts the departing soul to the virtuous world, for its virtuous deeds; to the sinful world, for its sinful deeds; and to the world of men, for both. 

Of the one hundred and one n??is, the ud?na v?yu that is present from head to toe, ascends through one of them called su?umn?. It is this v?yu that leads the j?va endowed with pu?ya karma resulting from adherence to the scriptural injunctions, to the world of meritorious beings such as the gods. Those j?vas who have only sinful deeds to their credit are led by the same ud?na through that very path to appropriate worlds of animals, etc. And by the same path does a j?va whose actions are characterized by both merit and demerits, pass to the world of humans, led by ud?na alone.

Mantra 3.8

??????? ? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????????????????????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ? ? ?

??????? sun ? ?? indeed verily ?????? external  ?????? pr??a ????? rises ?? he ?? indeed  ??? this  ???????? eye-located ??????? pr??a ??????????? blesses  ????????? in the world ?? that ????? deity ?? she ??? that ???????? of man ?????? ap?na ???????? controlling ?????? between ??? that ????? space ? he ????? sam?na ????? air ?????? vy?na

The sun, verily, is the external pr??a; for it rises, favouring the pr??a in the eye. The deity that exists in the earth controls the ap?na of man. The space, ?k??a, between heaven and earth is sam?na. The air is vy?na.

?ditya, the well-known sun, is the cosmic pr??a. He rises and blesses the eye, situated in the individual body, with the pr??a, life force, by providing it with the ocular light with which it sees. And the cosmic deity that is popular in the p?thiv?, earth, is the one that controls the ap?na, lower, actions, in the individual’s body. How does it help the individual? It keeps the body pulled to the ground alone and thereby the man is able to stand firm on the ground.  If this particular function of the pr??a (as ap?na) were not there, then the body might simply fall because of its weight, or when conditions prevail, could even fly upwards. And in the interim space between the earth and heaven that air which exists is called ‘?k??a’ (‘space’) just as a man sitting on a scaffolding is referred by the name ‘scaffolding’ in the sentence ‘the scaffolding shouts’. This air is ‘sam?na’ as it blesses the ‘sam?na’ (form of pr??a) in the body. The two ‘sam?na-s’, of the cosmos and the individual, have a common feature: both are in space, the cosmic one is in the space between the earth and heaven and the individual sam?na is located in the body-space. The general v?yu that pervades the cosmos is vy?na for there is a similarity between this cosmic v?yu and the individual specific v?yu which also pervades the body through the countless n??is (ref.3.6 above). And the cosmic vy?na blesses the individual vy?na.  In this mantra the special feature is that a relationship between the cosmos, adhidaivatam, and the individual, adhibh?tam, is stated as the former blessing the latter.

Part 1, Part 5, Part 7    

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