V Subrahmanian, Friday, June 3, 2016 9:17 am

The S?tasamhit?-B?had?ra?yakopani?at (Part 2)

Part 2

Having thus far taught the Truth that is the innermost of all entities, by the method of svar?pa lak?a?a (essential nature) and ta?astha lak?a?a (attributed nature), in the sequel all that is other than That is taught to be unreal, mithy? –

Verse 7:

????????????? ???? ? ????? ?? ??????? ?
? ?? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ??

??? ??????  other than That ????? unreal ????  everything ? not ????? real ?? indeed ??????? upon examining ? he ?? alone ????? everything ? not ?? indeed ?????? other ??? thus ?????? well ??????? examination

The world that is manifest as effect and that which is unmanifest as the cause, is certainly distinct from Brahman that is beyond the cause-effect duality.  Upon examination, this world is seen to be without any reality as apart from the Supreme Truth, for the world derives existence only from the uncaused Existence that is Brahman. Brahman is the substratum for the entire world of cause and effects.  When the truth of the world is enquired into, what comes to light is that it is only the substratum that is unsublatably real and the superimposed world is unreal, mithy?, just like the imaginary silver seen in the shell. Thus the world enjoys an existence-reality only in the realm of vyavah?ra, transactions. From the transcendental point of view, however, the world is not real at all. The world, on the other hand, has no existence apart from the substratum Brahman since it appears to exist only on the strength of the latter which is the innermost Consciousness of everyone. In other words, the world is a superimposition on Brahman. And therefore, is non-different from Brahman. This is called b?dh?y?m s?m?n?dhikara?yam.  It will be beneficial to read what Sri Shankaracharya says in the commentary to the Bhagavadg?t? 4.24:

???????????? ?????????????????????? ???????? ??????
???????? ??? ???????? ???????????????????4.24??

4.24 The ladle is Brahman, the oblation is Brahman. The offering is poured by Brahman in the fire of Brahman. Brahman alone is to be reached by him who has concentration on Brahman as the objective.

4.24. ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????

4.24. Brahma arpa?am, the ladle, is Brahman: The knower of Brahman perceives the instrument with which he offers oblation in the fire as Brahman Itself. He perceives it as not existing separately from the Self, as one sees the non-existence of silver in nacre. In this sense it is that Brahman Itself is the ladle, just as what appears as silver is only nacre.

Having taught that the innermost ?tman is the self of the individual body (adhy?tmam), the Upani?ad proceeds to show that the innermost ?tman is the self of the created universe, adhidaivam, too.    This teaching is found in the G?rgi br?hma?am of the B?had?ra?yakopani?at [3.6].

Verse 8:

??? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ???? ????? ?
???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ? ????? ? ??

??? just as ?????????? in earth ??? ? ?????? warp and woof  ?  indeed ???? everything ????? O Gods! ??? so too ?????  in  water ???? everything ????? O Gods! ??? ??????  warp and woof  ? no ????? doubt

In that br?hma?am the Upani?at demonstrates that the entire created universe, starting from the grossest p?thv? (earth) up to the subtlest Brahma loka inheres in the tattva that is prior to itself. This is done with a view to show that ?tman is the innermost of the entire creation. By doing this, the ?tman could be shown as the subtlest and the most pervading entity. In the process, the created entities are shown in an order of distinct levels of being higher and lower in relation to one another.

Just as a cloth pervades the threads woven in the pattern of warp and woof, so too the entire product of p?thv? (earth) inheres as it were in it, the cause thereof. This cause, p?thv? is subtle and pervading in relation to its products that inhere in it.  Similarly this p?thv? tattva, along with its effects, is situated in the manner of warp and woof in its cause, water. This method of the effect inhering in the cause is to be applied in the entities to be taken up in the sequel too.  

Verse 9:

????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???????????? ? ?
???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??

??? water ? in turn ???? in air ?? O ?????Gods! ???? warp ??????? woof ??? ?? in the same manner ? too ???????????? in the heavenly ????? air ? too ?????? worlds ?????????? O foremost of Gods!

Objection: Is not fire the cause of water, on the strength of the Vedic passage ‘agne? ?pa?’ (Taittiriya Upani?ad 2.1.1)? Hence it should be said that water inheres in fire.

Reply: This is no defect. Since fire, without resorting to either the earth or air, has no independent existence unlike other elements, it is said that fire inheres in air in the manner of warp and woof. It can be appreciated that earth can exist by itself, water, by itself.  Air, too, can exist by itself and ether also, without resorting to other elements, can exist by itself. Fire has to resort to firewood, for instance, a product of earth for its existence and manifestation. Hence it is mentioned that water rests in air that is the cause of fire. V?yu, air, rests in the antarik?a, heavenly worlds, as warp and woof, since that is the abode for V?yu’s movement.   

Verse 10:

????????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ? ?
??????????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ? ???

??????????? ? ????? the heavens  ? and ??? also ??????????? ? ?????? in Gandharva worlds ???????????? in the ?ditya worlds ??????? rest ???????????????? the worlds called ‘Gandharva’

Verse 11:

???????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?
????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ???

???????????? ? in the Chandra loka-s  ??????????? the ?ditya loka-s ???? rest ??? also ?? alone ? and ??????????: ? the Chandra loka-s too ????????????? in the Nak?atra loka-s  ?????????? O foremost Gods!

Verse 12:

????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?
?????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????????? ? ???

?????????  in the Deva loka-s ???????????? the Nak?atra loka-s  ???? rest ??? also ?? alone ? too ???????? Deva loka-s ? even ??  ????? O Gods!  ???????????? in Indra loka-s ????????? established

Why is the plural used for the word ‘world’, ‘loka’? It should be borne in mind that all the worlds are products of the five elements. Yet, in each loka, the elements themselves, on the basis of the difference in their subtlety, become abodes where higher bhoga-s are enjoyed. That is why in all the bhoga-abodes such as Antarik?a and Gandharva, the plural is used. It should also be noted that in each loka itself there are many extensions, as it were, where j?va-s with different karma-s experience different levels of bhoga-s which have to be made available to them in distinct places.   

Verse 13:

????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?
???????????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ? ???

????????????? ?????? in the Praj?pati loka-s ??????? rest ???????? Indra loka-s ????????? O Gods! ???????????? ??? ????? and  Praj?pati loka-s ???????????? in Brahma loka-s ????????? exist

???????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?
??????????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ???

???????????? in Vi??u loka-s ??  ????? O Gods! ??????????? Brahma loka-s ??????????? established ??????????? Vi??u loka-s ??? again ????rest ??????????? in Rudra loka-s ?? ????? O Gods!

?????????? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?
????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ???

?????????? Rudra loka-s ??????? stay  ?????? ???????? in ??vara loka-s ????????? O Gods! ????????? ?????? In Sad??iva’s loka-s ??????? established  ?? indeed ???? ??vara (Rudra) loka-s ????????? O foremost of Gods!

???? ????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??? ???? ?
??? ????? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???

???? ???????  as warp and woof ? also ?? these ????? worlds ???????????? in named ‘Brahma’ ??? in Supreme ???? ?iva ??? thus ????? all loka-s ??? always ????????????? in witness ????????????? innermost Self

Praj?pati is the one that has identification (abhim?na) with the gross body at the cosmic level. He is called Vir??. The five elements that go to make this cosmic body that gets the bhoga, experience, are called the Pr?j?patya loka-s. In these loka-s the Indra loka-s exist. Brahm? who takes the form of Hira?yagarbha effects the pañc?kara?a (blending up of the five subtle elements in a certain manner) to make the Brahm???a.  These five elements such as the ether alone are the ones known by the name ‘Brahma loka.’ The Brahma loka-s are the causal ones for the Pr?j?patya loka-s which reside in the former.    

The loka-s finally rest in the S?k?i svar?pa that is the pratyag?tman, the innermost self.

Verse 17:

???????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ???

???????????? In the innermost Self ??????? ????  as warp and woof ???????? owing to superimposition ??????? exist

The effected loka-s reside in the loka-s that are their causal ones that pervade them being superior. It must be remembered that this resting of loka-s in other loka-s is not real but only a superimposition. By extension, the entire creation consisting of loka-s, along with their occupants, is a superimposition, adhy?sa, owing to M?y?, on the Innermost Self, the Pratyag?tman, that is the substratum. While everything in creation needs an abode wherefrom it derives its fundamental existence and shine, Brahman, the Great Support, Itself does not need any other resort.  It is self-luminous, self-existent and if anyone asks ‘where is Brahman situated?’, the only reply is: ‘In Its own glory.’

(Coming soon…Part 3)


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