V Subrahmanian, Monday, July 4, 2016 12:26 pm

The S?tasamhit?-B?had?ra?yakopani?at (Part 3)

Part 3

Verse 18

??????????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?

? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???

???????????????? being the all-substratum  ?? however ???????????? the innermost self ?????????? self-effulgent ? not ?????????????????? rooted in anything ?????? witness ?????????? Existence  ????????? O foremost of Gods!

While all creation is supported, being superimposed, rests on Brahman, the latter itself does not need any abode to rest. It is the witness, the source, of all else.  Everything else is dependent on Brahman the substratum for its very being, existence. Brahman itself does not require anything to rest upon.  In other words, all that is within creation has Brahman for its support.  Brahman being neither an effect of anything nor the cause of anything, does not need any other entity for its own existence.     

Verse 19

??????????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?

? ?? ???? ????????? ????????????? ? ???

??????? in which ???????????? as superimposed ?????? rests ????? all ??????? when analyzed ? that ?? alone ???? complete ? not ?????? any other ??? thus ?????? well ??????? proved

Thus far it was clearly established that all the loka-s from p?thv? up to Brahma loka exist as superimposed only in the innermost Self. Upon further enquiry it will be known that in absolute terms, param?rthata?,  all these loka-s are non-different from Brahman, the Self.  The loka-s have no existence of their own; they  only appear to be existing on the borrowed existence of the Existence that is Brahman.

Verse 20

?????????? ????? ???? ??????????????????? ?

? ?? ????????????????????????? ? ????? ? ???

?? which ???? this ????? ?tman ????? itself ???? shines ?????? by Existence ????????????? exclusive of all ? that ??  alone ???????? directly ????????? of all ?????????? inner ruler ?  not ? indeed ???? other

Having established Brahman as the substratum of all superimposition, in the sequel, with a view to determine that very Brahman as the inner ruler of all beings, the section of the B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad called ‘antary?mi br?hma?am’ is now being condensed here. That Brahman which was shown in the foregoing as the innermost Self of all, is none other than the ‘antary?mi’, inner ruler, of all beings.  The equation ‘?ntary?m? is ?tman’ is clearly stated innumerable times in that section of the Upani?ad. This is a mah?v?kya that establishes the identity of the Self with Brahman. Normally the Self is understood as the one confined to the body-mind complex. Here, however, it is shown that the One Consciousness that resides in all the body-mind complexes is none other than the innermost Self.  Thereby the Upani?ad is dispelling the erroneous notion of limitation in the j?va. 

Verse 21

??????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??? ?

?? ? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ? ???

?????????? in Earth ??? too  ?? he ???????  abiding  ????????? of Earth ?????? inside ??? always ?? whom ? not ??? knows ????? O Gods! ?????? Earth ????? body ???? whose ??? Earth ??? too

Verse 22

???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ?

?? ?? ?? ?? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???

?? he ?????? inside ????? rules ???? this ????? Earth ?????????????? Immutable ?? he ?? alone ?? is ?? our ???????? immediate ?????????? Inner Ruler ??????? Supreme Eternal

Verse 23

????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ? ?? ????? ?

??? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?

?? ?? ?? ?? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???

????? in water ??????? abiding ???? of water ????? O Gods! ?????? inside ?? whom ? not ??? this ????? know ??? water ????? body ???? whose ????these ?? he ?????? inside ????? rules ??? of water ?? he ?? alone ?? indeed ?? our ???????? immediate ?????????? inner ruler ??????? Supreme Eternal

This is what is conveyed by the three verses above:

The Upani?ad presents Brahman as the one that resides inside as the basis of everything in creation, at all the three levels namely adhidaivam (cosmos), adhibh?tam (certain created entities) and adhy?tmam (the body-mind of living beings).  However, Brahman is free of all up?dhis and is the innermost Self, Consciousness.  As the one that lends power, Consciousness, sentience, to all the entities thereby enabling their functioning, Brahman alone is called ‘antary?mi’ (inner ruler). This is stated by the mantra ‘?? ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ??? ..’ B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad 3.7.3.  One might think that Brahman the cause is all over and is outside p?thv? (Earth) and therefore is incapable of impelling the latter.  This doubt is cleared by the statement ‘he who is inside p?thv?’.  Since Brahman is the material cause too, its pervasive presence even inside p?thv? is quite admissible.  However, even though Brahman is present inside, the p?thv? devat? does not realize this as ‘inside me too resides some sentient entity’. P?thv? is the body of Brahman, just as a body is a covering, a coat; there is no other body for Brahman. Brahman, the Param?tman, of these characteristics, residing inside p?thv? (bh?mi), impels the latter in all its activities. This impelling Brahman alone is the antary?mi (inner ruler or controller/impeller).

Objection: Since Brahman is said to engage in impelling from inside, action on the part of Brahman is inevitable.

Reply: Brahman is ni?kriyam, devoid of any action. This is Its absolute nature, without giving up which It ‘controls’ owing to up?dhi.

Objection: Then, being endowed with up?dhi, sop?dhika, Brahman too, like all of us, is only some j?va.

Reply: No, Brahman is the Supreme Eternal. Since Brahman does not identify itself with the up?dhi-born act of impelling, it alone is the immediate, direct, Supreme Being. It is beyond all the transforming entities, untouched by the trammels of sams?ra. 

What is stated with regard to p?thv? is to be applied in all the other cases commencing from ?pa?, water.

The idea is to present Brahman as the central essence of everything in creation so that the peripheral created entities are disregarded and only the essential Reality, Satyam, is grasped by the aspirant as the Self of not only himself but of everything in creation.

Verse 24

?????????? ?? ???? ????????????? ?? ????? ? ???

???? so too ?????? of fire ? also  ???? impeller ? and ???????????? space ??  ????? O Gods!

Verse 25

???????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ?

?? ?? ?? ?? ???????????????? ??????? ? ???

???????????? air, etc. ??????? of all ???????????? sentient and insentient ? also ?? he ?? alone ?? indeed ?? of our ???????? immediate ?????????? inner ruler ??????? supreme and eternal

Having explained the presence and purport of Brahman as Antary?mi in two entities, earth and water, the cases of air and space, etc. are taken up so as to extend the above rule. The Upani?ad says in mantras ??????? ?????????????????? ????????? ??? … ???????????? ??????????????????????? ??????????? ? ??? …(3.4.5,6) with regard to fire and inter-space.  The Upani?ad continues enumerating air, heavens, etc. ?? ???? ????????????????? ?? ??????? ??? … ?? ???? ????????????????? ?? ??????? ???… (3.4.7, 8). He who impels the entire created universe consisting of sentient and insentient entities is none other than the one that takes the name ‘antary?mi’ residing within each of us as our innermost being, Self, pratyag?tm?. By this mah?v?kya the Upani?ad is equating the all-pervading Brahman, Tat, with the entity that is available in each of us as the innermost self, tvam. Thus, the Tat tvam asi is the instruction in all these mantras.

Verse 26

?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?

?????? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ? ???

??????? unseen ??? this  ????? O Gods! ??????? seer ?????? hearer ?? alone ??? this ??? too ??????? unheard ???? unthought ? also ??? thus ????? thinker ???????? knower ????? alone ????? O Gods!

Question: Why do the deities such as p?thv? (earth), even as we people, are unaware of this antary?mi that resides in the Self?

Reply: The antary?mi is such a unique entity that has certain characteristics such as ‘ad??ya?’. Being devoid of form, it cannot be objectified by the eye (of the deities and of us). However, He himself abiding in the eye, as the very essence of seeing, is the Seer. Hence He is the unseen, unseeable, seer. Similarly, being devoid of sound, He is not an object of the ear, the instrument of hearing. On the other hand, the antary?mi, abiding in all the ears, being endowed with unceasing hearing ability, is the unheard of Hearer. The mind, manas, is the instrument that engages in desiring and doubting. The Antary?mi is not an object of the mind either. However, abiding in all the minds, He alone is the power of desiring and doubting, the essence of the organ manas.  The intellect, buddhi, also called vijñ?nam, is the faculty of determining. The Antary?mi resides in all intellects as the very power of determining and is not an Object of the buddhi.

Part 4 Coming Soon…

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