V Subrahmanian, Wednesday, August 31, 2016 12:08 pm

The S?tasamhit?-B?had?ra?yakopani?at (Part 5)

S?ta Samhit? B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad

Part  5

It was stated in the previous verse that the Yogi who knows the true nature of duality, dvaitam, does not see it even if he is perceiving duality. How is that possible? This is explained in the sequel.

?????????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?

???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???

???????? knower’s  ??????? vision ? no ???? loss ????? exists ??????? seen ?? alone ???????? perishes ??? that ? verily ?????? duality ????? of consciousness  ?????? seen ? not ????? exists ??????? seer ????? exists ?????? alone

The seer-Atman’s seeing power which is none other than pure Consciousness has no extinction. Just as heat that is the very essential nature of fire will exist till fire exists, the cognizing power of ?tman is eternal, never to go extinct. Therefore, no one needs to doubt the extinction of this power. This explains the passage  ? ?? ?????????????????????????? ???????????????????? [‘there is no cessation of the vision of the seer, because the seer is imperishable’] B?had?ra?yaka Upani?at 4.3.23.

Question: If the cognizing power of ?tman, the seer, is eternal, why can’t the seen world shine always by that cognizing power alone?

Reply: The cited Upani?ad mantra says: ‘Since that cognizing power does not cognize the seen world of duality.’ The world of duality gets sublated, resolved into, the substratum Brahman owing to the right knowledge secured by the knower. The non-cognition is only due to the absence of the objective world and not due to the extinction of the cognizing power, the Consciousness. Hence the world of duality does not shine during the states of sam?dhi (absorption), deep sleep, etc. During those states only the seer, Consciousness, alone remains without any break in continuity. Thus, the portion ? ?? ??????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? [There is then, however, no second thing separate from the seer that it could see.] of the Upani?ad stands explained.   

What is to be understood from the above explanation is: The world of duality is indeed available to the senses. The enlightened man knows that the visible world is not real; it is only an appearance created by m?y?. The perceiving senses derive their power to perceive only from the Consciousness. While the seen world is not perceived in the states of deep sleep, absorption, etc. the Seer Consciousness never goes out of existence. Even after the enlightened man dies, that is, when the body dies, there is no more perception of the world but the Eternal Consciousness that is Brahman continues to exist. It is Existence, Sat, that can never be destroyed by any power in creation.

Verse 33

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??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ? ???

??? This ???? his ???? highest ?????? wealth ???? goal ? too ???? supreme ???? his ?? however ??? this ???? his ???? highest ???? world ???? this ?? indeed ???? supreme  ????? bliss

The Upani?ad teaches the greatness of the enlightened person. The passage ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????????????????? ?????? ????????????????  (‘ This is its supreme attainment, this is its supreme  glory, this it its highest world, this is its supreme bliss. On a particle of this bliss other creatures live.") B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad 4.3.32 explains this.

What is the supreme glory? The state where nothing different from the Self is seen, heard or known is indeed the supreme glory. All other glories being produced and therefore ephemeral, the eternal, secondless ?tman-vision being established in Brahman, alone is the unique glory. Also, this alone is this enlightened one’s supreme attainment. All other attainments starting from the state of being Brahm? up to the state of being the smallest creature, being products of ignorance, avidy?, are lower alone.  Also, of the Jñ?nin this (Self) is the supreme, parama, ‘world’. All other loka-s, worlds, that are attainable through action are a-parama, inferior, finite. The establishment in the realization of Brahman-?tman, however, being natural, ever-existing, not attainable through any action, is unsurpassed and is clearly experienced. Hence alone it is called ‘parama? loka?’. This indeed is the supreme bliss which is characterized by being established as verily the unsurpassed Brahman-bliss. Compared to the eternal Brahman-bliss, the object-dependent bliss being ephemeral and only a tiny reflection of the Supreme Brahman-bliss, is worth rejecting. 

Verse 34

?????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?

? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????????? ? ???

?????????????? slough of snake ??????? cast away ??? just as ???? snake ????????? as its own ???? again ? not ?????? thinks ??? so too ???????? enlightened one ? not  ???? in the body ???????? feeling of ‘I’ ????? holds

He who has realized himself to be non-different from Brahman does not again consider the body-mind complex as himself. An analogy is given by the Upani?ad: ?????????????????? ??????? ???? … ("Just as the slough of a snake lies, dead and cast away, on an ant-hill, even so lies this body.) B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad 4.4.7) A snake periodically castes off its slough as a matter of course in an ant-hill (which it has made a home for itself). Having shed the slough the snake no longer considers it as a part of itself. In the same way the Knower of Brahman too no longer identifies himself with the body-mind apparatus which he has known to be the not-self.

All of Ved?nta s?dhana is only to culminate in this realization: I am not the body-mind but Brahman. This is the ultimate attainment, parama puru??rtha, of bodily existence. Once this is had, there is no longer the continuity of bodily existence. The period for which the Jñ?n? lives in the body is called j?vanmukti. After the body falls, that is, death of the body, there is no individuality of the person; Brahman alone is.


Verse 35

????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?

???????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ???

????????? in the support of all ??????????? self-existent ?????????? known as ‘?iva’ ?? and ??????? blemishless ???????????? innermost self ???????? supreme bliss ? not ?? in this ???? multiplicity ????? exists ?????? a wee bit

The notion of one being the body, etc. is based on difference, bheda. However, there is no evidence for bheda.  There is no pram??a that establishes bheda. Hence, the ?ruti that negates bheda is cited: ??? ???????? ?????? [‘There is no multiplicity whatsoever in Brahman’] (B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad 4.4.19 and Ka?hopani?ad 2.1.10). What is the locus in which multiplicity, duality, is negated by the Veda? It is Brahman that is the support, ?dh?ra, of all duality in creation. Brahman is the substratum in which the world of duality appears. Someone might argue: just like the world of duality is superimposed why not its support, the substratum, too be superimposed? The reply is: No, the substratum of all superimpositions is that entity which is self-established, svata?-siddham. It does not require any other support and thereby be contingent upon the existence, satt?, of that other support. In other words, the superimposed snake ‘exists’ on the borrowed existence of the rope. While the rope alone really exists, the illusory snake appears to exist on the existence of the rope. Brahman, however, does not require any other entity’s existence to exist. The word ‘nirmala’, pure, blemishless, in the verse negates m?y?. It is m?y?, owing to the gu?as, tha taints. Brahman is asa?ga, unattached, and hence no m?y?-born impurity can ever touch It.  It is called ‘?iva’, the Auspicious. It is not anywhere outside of, different from, oneself but verily oneself, the innermost Self. In Brahman of such description, there can never be any trace of duality.      

If this Ved?ntic Unity, Advaitam, is not admitted, the consequence is stated:

Verse 36

??????? ? ?????????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?

??????????????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???

??????? from death ?? he ???????? death ??????? attains  ?? here ???? multiplicity ?? as though ?????? sees ??????? therefore ????????? superimposed ??????? ignorance ????????? its effect ? too ????????? as ?tman

Whoever sees difference, multiplicity, in Brahman which is verily the innermost Self, in the form ‘I am different, the world, ??vara, etc. are different’, he, being enslaved by ignorance, goes from death to death; he keeps taking birth after birth. Birth and death is the cycle from which he never frees himself owing to the notion that the multiplicity is real. Therefore the Ved?ntic Unity delineated in the foregoing alone is the highest Truth. Since absolute difference is not true, ignorance and its effect in its entirety such as the elements namely ether, air, etc., and the material world are only a superimposition in Brahman which is without a second of any kind. Therefore the best vision one ought to have is that ‘All this observed universe of apparent multiplicity is verily non-different from the substratum Brahman-?tman.’

Verse 37

????? ??????????????????? ?? ??????????? ?

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???? as one ?? alone ????????? with great effort ?????????? to be seen  ?? indeed ??????????? by aspirants ???? this ????? ?tman ???????? is not an object ? also ????? pure ? and ????? Great  ?????? firm

Coming soon…Part 6

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