V Subrahmanian, Thursday, July 28, 2016 2:02 pm

The S?tasamhit? – Part 14

S?tasamhit? Ch?ndogya Upani?at

Part 14

In the foregoing it was established that there is naught other than Brahman. Even ajñ?nam, ignorance, that has been admitted, is not accorded any independent existence and ultimately is unreal, non-existent, having no status apart from Brahman.

Verse 98

??????????????????????? ? ??????????? ? ???

??????? therefore ???????? ignorance ???????????? effects of ignorance ? too ??????????? O! Foremost of Gods!

Verse 99

??? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???? ?

????????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ? ???

??? one ?????? Brahman ?? alone ? not ?? ever ?????? else ??? thus ?? my ???????? definite ???? conviction ??????????? this-as-?tman ??? this ?????? all ??? thus ?? said ?? indeed ??? exalted ??????? Veda

Therefore ignorance and its effect, the world, bondage, etc. are no different from Brahman. Such is the conclusion of the Veda which without mincing words declares emphatically: All that is experienced as the objective and subjective world has Brahman as its Self. That is, Brahman is the substratum on which the entire world of duality is superimposed. That which is superimposed has no separate existence and thus cannot be counted as a second to the substratum. 

Objection: The Veda also teaches difference, such as ‘ether emerges from the Self’ (Taittir?ya Upani?ad), ‘let the one desirous of heaven engage in the ritualistic sacrifice’ (Yajur Veda).  In the light of such passages how is it justified that the Veda teaches only the sole reality of the Non-dual Brahman?

In reply is said: 

Verse 100

?????????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?

????????????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ????

?????????????????? direct meaning ??????? Veda ?? this ??? verily ????????? endeavors ??????? disciple’s ????????????? immaturity ??????? regretfully ????? forced ??????? Veda

The Vedic passage ‘????????????? ??????’ (Ch?ndogya upani?ad 6.8.7) intends to convey directly the prevailing ultimate position, which is Advaitam, non-duality. However, since an aspirant who is not prepared enough to receive such a teaching needs to be first taught those ideas that only allude to his preconceived notions involving difference, bheda. Hence alone the passages such as creation, heaven, the means to that end, etc. are also found in the Veda. The purport of the Vedic teaching is not in establishing difference but only in transcending difference and fixing the Advaitic truth firmly in the intellect of the aspirant. This method is called ‘adhy?ropa-apav?da’ which means deliberately superimposing (difference) and subsequently negating it (difference).

Verse 101

????????????????????? ????? ? ???????? ????? ?

???????????????????? ???????? ? ????

??????? somewhere ??????? sometimes ????????? other thing ????? says ? too ???????? from Brahman ????? different ???????????????????? the stating of means and end and their connection ???????? the fruit

Verse 102

????????????????????? ??????????????????? ?

??????????????????????????????????????? ? ? ????

????????????????????? presenting the variegated nature of the world ??????????????????? stating the fruit of merit and demerit ???????????????????? stating the distinction of caste and stage in life ????????????? the duties thereof  ??? and ?? only ? too

Verse 103

????????????????? ?????????????? ?

???????? ??????????????????????? ? ?????? ? ????

???????????????  talk of good and bad ? and ?????????????? talk of the elements and elementals ???????? of words ??????????? pointing to difference ??? and ???????? of meaning ? too ?????? statement

Verse 104

????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?

?????????????? ???? ???????????????? ? ????

?????? from ?tman ??????? other ??????? everything ???????????? stating of existence ????????? O! Foremost of Gods! ?????????????? declaring unreality ???? of that ???????????????? stating the existence of m?y?  

Verse 105

??????????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?

??????????????????? ???????????????????? ? ????

?????????????stating of m?y?hood  ? and ??????? from m?y? ????? bondage ??? thus ????????? declaring ????????????????? narrating episodes of teacher and taught ? and ???????????????????? delineating the knowledge of Brahman  

Verse 106

????????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ?

???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?

?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ? ????

???????????? of disciplines ??? also ???????? alluding ????????? of reasonings ??? too ?????? stating ?????? other ?????????? false reasonings ??? which ???????? that stating ? too ?????? concisely ?????????? with different purpose ??? supreme ?????? Brahman ??????? Veda ?????? virtuous ? not ?????? that-intended  

Verse 107

?????????????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ?

??????????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ? ????

?????????????????? as per the mental make up   ????????? of the aspirants ???? the great ??????? Veda ??????????? step by step ????? O Gods! ????? ????? gradually ???? beneficial ?????? of men

Verse 108

??????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ?

????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????

??????? having taught ??????? regret ??? though ???? again ????????????? to the ripe aspirants ??????????? this-as-?tman ??? this ?????? all  ??? thus ?? declared ?????????? supreme non-dual

The purport of the above verses (from 101 to 108) is:

In this strain are mentioned, the end that is sought, the means for it as also the relation between them, diverse nature of the universe, dharma and adharma, the classification as also the duties pertaining to var?a-s and ??rama-s, of good and evil, the physical elements and their derivatives, the distinction pertaining to words, and their meanings, the existence of all else other than ?tman.

These are for seekers with feebler equipment. For seekers in the middle range, with better equipment are mentioned –

Illusory nature of the world, existence of M?y?, M?y? as being responsible for illusion, bondage as due to M?y?, episodes relating to the Master and the disciple, Brahmavidy? (as the dispeller of primal ignorance), Mah?v?kya-s (sentence proclaiming the identity of the individual Self and the Supreme Self) and reasoning as auxiliary, or, in brief, a host of such other constructs.

All this is for the sake of the respective seekers.  The purport of the ?ruti, however, is not in these constructs or delineations.  She is singularly devoted to the Supreme Brahman which is her own, true svar?pa (essence).

In this manner, the great ?ruti, depressed as she was, because of the imperfect equipment on the part of the seekers and having offered instruction leading each gradually, step by step, in his spiritual progress, now unfolds, for the fully equipped, the Non-dual Absolute, in the words – ‘All this is only the ?tman.’  

The method of contemplation is stated in two verses:

Verse 109

?????????????????????????????? ???? ?

????? ???????????????????????????? ??????? ? ????

?????????????????????????????? the glory that is the world, the j?va, ??vara, etc.  ???? bereft ????? merely ???????????????????????????? Consciousness-Existence-Bliss-Non-dual-Brahman-specific ??????? Veda

Verse 110

?????????????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?

??? ???????????????? ??????????????? ? ????

?????????????????? world-j?va-??vara, etc. ????? everything ?????? Brahman ?? alone ?????? only ??? thus ???????????????? one’s Fullness knowledge ??????????????? conviction of the highest non-duality 

All this world consisting of the bhokt? (the experiencer j?va), bhogya (the experienced objective world of variety) and ??vara (the Lord who connects the j?va to the bhogya) is nothing but the Supreme Brahman alone that is Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. The Veda teaches us that the Supreme Brahman alone appears as the jagat, j?va and ??vara.  What appears as variety, duality, is actually the One Brahman. This is not just an objective intellectual knowledge but the intimate realization of the aspirant which takes the form ‘I am none other than Brahman that alone appears as the entire world of variety’.  This p?r?atvam, the idea of being the Immanent and Transcendental, is the realization that is crucial to liberation. One must contemplate in this manner.  Only then the erroneous notion of one being finite and the equally erroneous idea of Brahman being different from oneself goes forever resulting in the cessation of transmigratory existence, sams?ra. The cessation of ignorance marks liberation. 

Verse 111

????????????????????? ???????? ? ????? ?

????????????????????????????????? ? ????

??? than this ?????? other ???  whichever ????????? knowledge ??? that ??????? ignorance ? no ????? doubt ??????? by enquiry ???? this ?? alone ????? conclusion ?? however ???? this ?? alone ???????? by not enquiring

Any knowledge, realization, that is other than the one taught in the foregoing, ‘I am Brahman the All’, is only ignorance. What could be an example for ignorance? ‘I am one and Brahman is another’. One can consider the examples such as ‘this world is different from Brahman’ and ‘the objects are different from each other’. All such perceptions will be in the throes of ignorance alone and not qualify to be called ‘knowledge’ from the ultimate purport of the Veda. In fact the B?had?ra?yaka Upani?ad 1.4.10 makes it very graphic: ‘?? ???????? ??????????????????????????????????? ? ? ???’ [‘Now, if a man worships another deity, thinking: “He is one and I am another,” he does not know.’]   Whether one engages in the enquiry of the truth or not, the fact that ‘Brahman alone is and everything else is naught’ remains undisturbed.

Verse 112

? ??????????????????????????????? ?????????? ? ????

? ??????? never ?????? difference ????? exists ??? thus ???? this ?????? realization ?????????? very rare

Such a realization of the non-dual Truth is extremely rare. Why? It arises only when the aspirant sincerely engages himself in the performance of the duties prescribed for his stage and state in life resulting in the Supreme Lord, ??vara, being pleased by it and gracing him with the opportunity to tread the path of jñ?na under a benevolent ?ch?rya and finally realize the Truth. The Lord says in the Bhagavadg?t?:

?????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? 7.3 ??

7.3. Among thousands of men a rare one endeavors for perfection. Even of the perfected ones who are diligent, one, perchance knows Me in truth.

Coming soon…Part 15


Warning: Use of undefined constant php - assumed 'php' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /homepages/26/d757526286/htdocs/ADVAITAACADEMY/wp-content/themes/advaita/single.php on line 102

Recent articles